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(3)Harvest and culture the cells according to ES cell culture, using mitotically inactivated feeder cells (lightgray).(4)A small subset of the transfected cells become i PS cells and generate ES-like colonies.Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as i PS cells or i PSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.The i PSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells.The table at right summarizes the key strategies and techniques used to develop i PS cells in the first five years after Yamanaka et al.'s 2006 breakthrough.Rows of similar colors represent studies that used similar strategies for reprogramming.A scheme of the generation of induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells. (2)Transduce stem cell-associated genes into the cells by viral vectors.Red cells indicate the cells expressing the exogenous genes.

Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes.

However, instead of using Fbx15 to select for pluripotent cells, the researchers used Nanog, a gene that is functionally important in ESCs.

By using this different strategy, the researchers created i PSCs that were functionally identical to ESCs.

The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell.

However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction (or at least manipulation) of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use.

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